How to import a module given the full path? – Dev

The best answers to the question “How to import a module given the full path?” in the category Dev.

QUESTION:

How can I load a Python module given its full path?

Note that the file can be anywhere in the filesystem, as it is a configuration option.

ANSWER:

The advantage of adding a path to sys.path (over using imp) is that it simplifies things when importing more than one module from a single package. For example:

import sys
# the mock-0.3.1 dir contains testcase.py, testutils.py & mock.py
sys.path.append('/foo/bar/mock-0.3.1')

from testcase import TestCase
from testutils import RunTests
from mock import Mock, sentinel, patch

ANSWER:

For Python 3.5+ use:

import importlib.util
spec = importlib.util.spec_from_file_location("module.name", "/path/to/file.py")
foo = importlib.util.module_from_spec(spec)
spec.loader.exec_module(foo)
foo.MyClass()

For Python 3.3 and 3.4 use:

from importlib.machinery import SourceFileLoader

foo = SourceFileLoader("module.name", "/path/to/file.py").load_module()
foo.MyClass()

(Although this has been deprecated in Python 3.4.)

For Python 2 use:

import imp

foo = imp.load_source('module.name', '/path/to/file.py')
foo.MyClass()

There are equivalent convenience functions for compiled Python files and DLLs.

See also http://bugs.python.org/issue21436.

ANSWER:

If your top-level module is not a file but is packaged as a directory with __init__.py, then the accepted solution almost works, but not quite. In Python 3.5+ the following code is needed (note the added line that begins with ‘sys.modules’):

MODULE_PATH = "/path/to/your/module/__init__.py"
MODULE_NAME = "mymodule"
import importlib
import sys
spec = importlib.util.spec_from_file_location(MODULE_NAME, MODULE_PATH)
module = importlib.util.module_from_spec(spec)
sys.modules[spec.name] = module 
spec.loader.exec_module(module)

Without this line, when exec_module is executed, it tries to bind relative imports in your top level __init__.py to the top level module name — in this case “mymodule”. But “mymodule” isn’t loaded yet so you’ll get the error “SystemError: Parent module ‘mymodule’ not loaded, cannot perform relative import”. So you need to bind the name before you load it. The reason for this is the fundamental invariant of the relative import system: “The invariant holding is that if you have sys.modules[‘spam’] and sys.modules[‘spam.foo’] (as you would after the above import), the latter must appear as the foo attribute of the former” as discussed here.

ANSWER:

To import your module, you need to add its directory to the environment variable, either temporarily or permanently.

Temporarily

import sys
sys.path.append("/path/to/my/modules/")
import my_module

Permanently

Adding the following line to your .bashrc (or alternative) file in Linux
and excecute source ~/.bashrc (or alternative) in the terminal:

export PYTHONPATH="${PYTHONPATH}:/path/to/my/modules/"

Credit/Source: saarrrr, another Stack Exchange question