How to sort a list of objects based on an attribute of the objects? – Dev

The best answers to the question “How to sort a list of objects based on an attribute of the objects?” in the category Dev.

QUESTION:

I’ve got a list of Python objects that I’d like to sort by an attribute of the objects themselves. The list looks like:

>>> ut
[<Tag: 128>, <Tag: 2008>, <Tag: <>, <Tag: actionscript>, <Tag: addresses>,
 <Tag: aes>, <Tag: ajax> ...]

Each object has a count:

>>> ut[1].count
1L

I need to sort the list by number of counts descending.

I’ve seen several methods for this, but I’m looking for best practice in Python.

ANSWER:

A way that can be fastest, especially if your list has a lot of records, is to use operator.attrgetter("count"). However, this might run on an pre-operator version of Python, so it would be nice to have a fallback mechanism. You might want to do the following, then:

try: import operator
except ImportError: keyfun= lambda x: x.count # use a lambda if no operator module
else: keyfun= operator.attrgetter("count") # use operator since it's faster than lambda

ut.sort(key=keyfun, reverse=True) # sort in-place

ANSWER:

# To sort the list in place...
ut.sort(key=lambda x: x.count, reverse=True)

# To return a new list, use the sorted() built-in function...
newlist = sorted(ut, key=lambda x: x.count, reverse=True)

More on sorting by keys.

ANSWER:

Object-oriented approach

It’s good practice to make object sorting logic, if applicable, a property of the class rather than incorporated in each instance the ordering is required.

This ensures consistency and removes the need for boilerplate code.

At a minimum, you should specify __eq__ and __lt__ operations for this to work. Then just use sorted(list_of_objects).

class Card(object):

    def __init__(self, rank, suit):
        self.rank = rank
        self.suit = suit

    def __eq__(self, other):
        return self.rank == other.rank and self.suit == other.suit

    def __lt__(self, other):
        return self.rank < other.rank

hand = [Card(10, 'H'), Card(2, 'h'), Card(12, 'h'), Card(13, 'h'), Card(14, 'h')]
hand_order = [c.rank for c in hand]  # [10, 2, 12, 13, 14]

hand_sorted = sorted(hand)
hand_sorted_order = [c.rank for c in hand_sorted]  # [2, 10, 12, 13, 14]

ANSWER:

Readers should notice that the key= method:

ut.sort(key=lambda x: x.count, reverse=True)

is many times faster than adding rich comparison operators to the objects. I was surprised to read this (page 485 of “Python in a Nutshell”). You can confirm this by running tests on this little program:

#!/usr/bin/env python
import random

class C:
    def __init__(self,count):
        self.count = count

    def __cmp__(self,other):
        return cmp(self.count,other.count)

longList = [C(random.random()) for i in xrange(1000000)] #about 6.1 secs
longList2 = longList[:]

longList.sort() #about 52 - 6.1 = 46 secs
longList2.sort(key = lambda c: c.count) #about 9 - 6.1 = 3 secs

My, very minimal, tests show the first sort is more than 10 times slower, but the book says it is only about 5 times slower in general. The reason they say is due to the highly optimizes sort algorithm used in python (timsort).

Still, its very odd that .sort(lambda) is faster than plain old .sort(). I hope they fix that.