Parameterize an SQL IN clause – Dev

The best answers to the question “Parameterize an SQL IN clause” in the category Dev.


How do I parameterize a query containing an IN clause with a variable number of arguments, like this one?

WHERE Name IN ('ruby','rails','scruffy','rubyonrails')

In this query, the number of arguments could be anywhere from 1 to 5.

I would prefer not to use a dedicated stored procedure for this (or XML), but if there is some elegant way specific to SQL Server 2008, I am open to that.


Here’s a quick-and-dirty technique I have used:

WHERE '|ruby|rails|scruffy|rubyonrails|'
LIKE '%|' + Name + '|%'

So here’s the C# code:

string[] tags = new string[] { "ruby", "rails", "scruffy", "rubyonrails" };
const string cmdText = "select * from tags where '|' + @tags + '|' like '%|' + Name + '|%'";

using (SqlCommand cmd = new SqlCommand(cmdText)) {
   cmd.Parameters.AddWithValue("@tags", string.Join("|", tags);

Two caveats:

  • The performance is terrible. LIKE "%...%" queries are not indexed.
  • Make sure you don’t have any |, blank, or null tags or this won’t work

There are other ways to accomplish this that some people may consider cleaner, so please keep reading.


You can parameterize each value, so something like:

string[] tags = new string[] { "ruby", "rails", "scruffy", "rubyonrails" };
string cmdText = "SELECT * FROM Tags WHERE Name IN ({0})";

string[] paramNames = tags.Select(
    (s, i) => "@tag" + i.ToString()

string inClause = string.Join(", ", paramNames);
using (SqlCommand cmd = new SqlCommand(string.Format(cmdText, inClause))) {
    for(int i = 0; i < paramNames.Length; i++) {
       cmd.Parameters.AddWithValue(paramNames[i], tags[i]);

Which will give you:

cmd.CommandText = "SELECT * FROM Tags WHERE Name IN (@tag0, @tag1, @tag2, @tag3)"
cmd.Parameters["@tag0"] = "ruby"
cmd.Parameters["@tag1"] = "rails"
cmd.Parameters["@tag2"] = "scruffy"
cmd.Parameters["@tag3"] = "rubyonrails"

No, this is not open to SQL injection. The only injected text into CommandText is not based on user input. It’s solely based on the hardcoded “@tag” prefix, and the index of an array. The index will always be an integer, is not user generated, and is safe.

The user inputted values are still stuffed into parameters, so there is no vulnerability there.


Injection concerns aside, take care to note that constructing the command text to accomodate a variable number of parameters (as above) impede’s SQL server’s ability to take advantage of cached queries. The net result is that you almost certainly lose the value of using parameters in the first place (as opposed to merely inserting the predicate strings into the SQL itself).

Not that cached query plans aren’t valuable, but IMO this query isn’t nearly complicated enough to see much benefit from it. While the compilation costs may approach (or even exceed) the execution costs, you’re still talking milliseconds.

If you have enough RAM, I’d expect SQL Server would probably cache a plan for the common counts of parameters as well. I suppose you could always add five parameters, and let the unspecified tags be NULL – the query plan should be the same, but it seems pretty ugly to me and I’m not sure that it’d worth the micro-optimization (although, on Stack Overflow – it may very well be worth it).

Also, SQL Server 7 and later will auto-parameterize queries, so using parameters isn’t really necessary from a performance standpoint – it is, however, critical from a security standpoint – especially with user inputted data like this.


The original question was “How do I parameterize a query …”

Let me state right here, that this is not an answer to the original question. There are already some demonstrations of that in other good answers.

With that said, go ahead and flag this answer, downvote it, mark it as not an answer… do whatever you believe is right.

See the answer from Mark Brackett for the preferred answer that I (and 231 others) upvoted. The approach given in his answer allows 1) for effective use of bind variables, and 2) for predicates that are sargable.

Selected answer

What I want to address here is the approach given in Joel Spolsky’s answer, the answer “selected” as the right answer.

Joel Spolsky’s approach is clever. And it works reasonably, it’s going to exhibit predictable behavior and predictable performance, given “normal” values, and with the normative edge cases, such as NULL and the empty string. And it may be sufficient for a particular application.

But in terms generalizing this approach, let’s also consider the more obscure corner cases, like when the Name column contains a wildcard character (as recognized by the LIKE predicate.) The wildcard character I see most commonly used is % (a percent sign.). So let’s deal with that here now, and later go on to other cases.

Some problems with % character

Consider a Name value of 'pe%ter'. (For the examples here, I use a literal string value in place of the column name.) A row with a Name value of `’pe%ter’ would be returned by a query of the form:

select ...
 where '|peanut|butter|' like '%|' + 'pe%ter' + '|%'

But that same row will not be returned if the order of the search terms is reversed:

select ...
 where '|butter|peanut|' like '%|' + 'pe%ter' + '|%'

The behavior we observe is kind of odd. Changing the order of the search terms in the list changes the result set.

It almost goes without saying that we might not want pe%ter to match peanut butter, no matter how much he likes it.

Obscure corner case

(Yes, I will agree that this is an obscure case. Probably one that is not likely to be tested. We wouldn’t expect a wildcard in a column value. We may assume that the application prevents such a value from being stored. But in my experience, I’ve rarely seen a database constraint that specifically disallowed characters or patterns that would be considered wildcards on the right side of a LIKE comparison operator.

Patching a hole

One approach to patching this hole is to escape the % wildcard character. (For anyone not familiar with the escape clause on the operator, here’s a link to the SQL Server documentation.

select ...
 where '|peanut|butter|'
  like '%|' + 'pe\%ter' + '|%' escape '\'

Now we can match the literal %. Of course, when we have a column name, we’re going to need to dynamically escape the wildcard. We can use the REPLACE function to find occurrences of the %character and insert a backslash character in front of each one, like this:

select ...
 where '|pe%ter|'
  like '%|' + REPLACE( 'pe%ter' ,'%','\%') + '|%' escape '\'

So that solves the problem with the % wildcard. Almost.

Escape the escape

We recognize that our solution has introduced another problem. The escape character. We see that we’re also going to need to escape any occurrences of escape character itself. This time, we use the ! as the escape character:

select ...
 where '|pe%t!r|'
  like '%|' + REPLACE(REPLACE( 'pe%t!r' ,'!','!!'),'%','!%') + '|%' escape '!'

The underscore too

Now that we’re on a roll, we can add another REPLACE handle the underscore wildcard. And just for fun, this time, we’ll use $ as the escape character.

select ...
 where '|p_%t!r|'
  like '%|' + REPLACE(REPLACE(REPLACE( 'p_%t!r' ,'$','$$'),'%','$%'),'_','$_') + '|%' escape '$'

I prefer this approach to escaping because it works in Oracle and MySQL as well as SQL Server. (I usually use the \ backslash as the escape character, since that’s the character we use in regular expressions. But why be constrained by convention!

Those pesky brackets

SQL Server also allows for wildcard characters to be treated as literals by enclosing them in brackets []. So we’re not done fixing yet, at least for SQL Server. Since pairs of brackets have special meaning, we’ll need to escape those as well. If we manage to properly escape the brackets, then at least we won’t have to bother with the hyphen - and the carat ^ within the brackets. And we can leave any %and _ characters inside the brackets escaped, since we’ll have basically disabled the special meaning of the brackets.

Finding matching pairs of brackets shouldn’t be that hard. It’s a little more difficult than handling the occurrences of singleton % and _. (Note that it’s not sufficient to just escape all occurrences of brackets, because a singleton bracket is considered to be a literal, and doesn’t need to be escaped. The logic is getting a little fuzzier than I can handle without running more test cases.)

Inline expression gets messy

That inline expression in the SQL is getting longer and uglier. We can probably make it work, but heaven help the poor soul that comes behind and has to decipher it. As much of a fan I am for inline expressions, I’m inclined not use one here, mainly because I don’t want to have to leave a comment explaining the reason for the mess, and apologizing for it.

A function where ?

Okay, so, if we don’t handle that as an inline expression in the SQL, the closest alternative we have is a user defined function. And we know that won’t speed things up any (unless we can define an index on it, like we could with Oracle.) If we’ve got to create a function, we might better do that in the code that calls the SQL statement.

And that function may have some differences in behavior, dependent on the DBMS and version. (A shout out to all you Java developers so keen on being able to use any database engine interchangeably.)

Domain knowledge

We may have specialized knowledge of the domain for the column, (that is, the set of allowable values enforced for the column. We may know a priori that the values stored in the column will never contain a percent sign, an underscore, or bracket pairs. In that case, we just include a quick comment that those cases are covered.

The values stored in the column may allow for % or _ characters, but a constraint may require those values to be escaped, perhaps using a defined character, such that the values are LIKE comparison “safe”. Again, a quick comment about the allowed set of values, and in particular which character is used as an escape character, and go with Joel Spolsky’s approach.

But, absent the specialized knowledge and a guarantee, it’s important for us to at least consider handling those obscure corner cases, and consider whether the behavior is reasonable and “per the specification”.

Other issues recapitulated

I believe others have already sufficiently pointed out some of the other commonly considered areas of concern:

  • SQL injection (taking what would appear to be user supplied information, and including that in the SQL text rather than supplying them through bind variables. Using bind variables isn’t required, it’s just one convenient approach to thwart with SQL injection. There are other ways to deal with it:

  • optimizer plan using index scan rather than index seeks, possible need for an expression or function for escaping wildcards (possible index on expression or function)

  • using literal values in place of bind variables impacts scalability


I like Joel Spolsky’s approach. It’s clever. And it works.

But as soon as I saw it, I immediately saw a potential problem with it, and it’s not my nature to let it slide. I don’t mean to be critical of the efforts of others. I know many developers take their work very personally, because they invest so much into it and they care so much about it. So please understand, this is not a personal attack. What I’m identifying here is the type of problem that crops up in production rather than testing.

Yes, I’ve gone far afield from the original question. But where else to leave this note concerning what I consider to be an important issue with the “selected” answer for a question?


For SQL Server 2008, you can use a table valued parameter. It’s a bit of work, but it is arguably cleaner than my other method.

First, you have to create a type

CREATE TYPE dbo.TagNamesTableType AS TABLE ( Name nvarchar(50) )

Then, your ADO.NET code looks like this:

string[] tags = new string[] { "ruby", "rails", "scruffy", "rubyonrails" };
cmd.CommandText = "SELECT Tags.* FROM Tags JOIN @tagNames as P ON Tags.Name = P.Name";

// value must be IEnumerable<SqlDataRecord>
cmd.Parameters.AddWithValue("@tagNames", tags.AsSqlDataRecord("Name")).SqlDbType = SqlDbType.Structured;
cmd.Parameters["@tagNames"].TypeName = "dbo.TagNamesTableType";

// Extension method for converting IEnumerable<string> to IEnumerable<SqlDataRecord>
public static IEnumerable<SqlDataRecord> AsSqlDataRecord(this IEnumerable<string> values, string columnName) {
    if (values == null || !values.Any()) return null; // Annoying, but SqlClient wants null instead of 0 rows
    var firstRecord = values.First();
    var metadata= new SqlMetaData(columnName, SqlDbType.NVarChar, 50); //50 as per SQL Type
    return values.Select(v => 
       var r = new SqlDataRecord(metadata);
       return r;

As Per @Doug

Please try to avoid var metadata = SqlMetaData.InferFromValue(firstRecord, columnName);

It’s set first value length, so if first value is 3 characters then its set max length 3 and other records will truncated if more then 3 characters.

So, please try to use: var metadata= new SqlMetaData(columnName, SqlDbType.NVarChar, maxLen);

Note: -1 for max length.