When are you supposed to use escape instead of encodeURI / encodeURIComponent? – Dev

The best answers to the question “When are you supposed to use escape instead of encodeURI / encodeURIComponent?” in the category Dev.

QUESTION:

When encoding a query string to be sent to a web server – when do you use escape() and when do you use encodeURI() or encodeURIComponent():

Use escape:

escape("% +&=");

OR

use encodeURI() / encodeURIComponent()

encodeURI("http://www.google.com?var1=value1&var2=value2");

encodeURIComponent("var1=value1&var2=value2");

ANSWER:

The difference between encodeURI() and encodeURIComponent() are exactly 11 characters encoded by encodeURIComponent but not by encodeURI:

Table with the ten differences between encodeURI and encodeURIComponent

I generated this table easily with console.table in Google Chrome with this code:

var arr = [];
for(var i=0;i<256;i++) {
  var char=String.fromCharCode(i);
  if(encodeURI(char)!==encodeURIComponent(char)) {
    arr.push({
      character:char,
      encodeURI:encodeURI(char),
      encodeURIComponent:encodeURIComponent(char)
    });
  }
}
console.table(arr);

ANSWER:

escape()

Don’t use it!
escape() is defined in section B.2.1.2 escape and the introduction text of Annex B says:

… All of the language features and behaviours specified in this annex have one or more undesirable characteristics and in the absence of legacy usage would be removed from this specification. …
… Programmers should not use or assume the existence of these features and behaviours when writing new ECMAScript code….

Behaviour:

https://developer.mozilla.org/en-US/docs/Web/JavaScript/Reference/Global_Objects/escape

Special characters are encoded with the exception of: @*_+-./

The hexadecimal form for characters, whose code unit value is 0xFF or less, is a two-digit escape sequence: %xx.

For characters with a greater code unit, the four-digit format %uxxxx is used. This is not allowed within a query string (as defined in RFC3986):

query       = *( pchar / "/" / "?" )
pchar         = unreserved / pct-encoded / sub-delims / ":" / "@"
unreserved    = ALPHA / DIGIT / "-" / "." / "_" / "~"
pct-encoded   = "%" HEXDIG HEXDIG
sub-delims    = "!" / "$" / "&" / "'" / "(" / ")"
              / "*" / "+" / "," / ";" / "="

A percent sign is only allowed if it is directly followed by two hexdigits, percent followed by u is not allowed.

encodeURI()

Use encodeURI when you want a working URL. Make this call:

encodeURI("http://www.example.org/a file with spaces.html")

to get:

http://www.example.org/a%20file%20with%20spaces.html

Don’t call encodeURIComponent since it would destroy the URL and return

http%3A%2F%2Fwww.example.org%2Fa%20file%20with%20spaces.html

Note that encodeURI, like encodeURIComponent, does not escape the ‘ character.

encodeURIComponent()

Use encodeURIComponent when you want to encode the value of a URL parameter.

var p1 = encodeURIComponent("http://example.org/?a=12&b=55")

Then you may create the URL you need:

var url = "http://example.net/?param1=" + p1 + "&param2=99";

And you will get this complete URL:

http://example.net/?param1=http%3A%2F%2Fexample.org%2F%Ffa%3D12%26b%3D55&param2=99

Note that encodeURIComponent does not escape the ' character. A common bug is to use it to create html attributes such as href="https://stackoverflow.com/questions/75980/MyUrl", which could suffer an injection bug. If you are constructing html from strings, either use " instead of ' for attribute quotes, or add an extra layer of encoding (' can be encoded as %27).

For more information on this type of encoding you can check: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Percent-encoding

ANSWER:

encodeURIComponent doesn’t encode -_.!~*'(), causing problem in posting data to php in xml string.

For example:
<xml><text x="100" y="150" value="It's a value with single quote" />
</xml>

General escape with encodeURI
%3Cxml%3E%3Ctext%20x=%22100%22%20y=%22150%22%20value=%22It's%20a%20value%20with%20single%20quote%22%20/%3E%20%3C/xml%3E

You can see, single quote is not encoded.
To resolve issue I created two functions to solve issue in my project, for Encoding URL:

function encodeData(s:String):String{
    return encodeURIComponent(s).replace(/\-/g, "%2D").replace(/\_/g, "%5F").replace(/\./g, "%2E").replace(/\!/g, "%21").replace(/\~/g, "%7E").replace(/\*/g, "%2A").replace(/\'/g, "%27").replace(/\(/g, "%28").replace(/\)/g, "%29");
}

For Decoding URL:

function decodeData(s:String):String{
    try{
        return decodeURIComponent(s.replace(/\%2D/g, "-").replace(/\%5F/g, "_").replace(/\%2E/g, ".").replace(/\%21/g, "!").replace(/\%7E/g, "~").replace(/\%2A/g, "*").replace(/\%27/g, "'").replace(/\%28/g, "(").replace(/\%29/g, ")"));
    }catch (e:Error) {
    }
    return "";
}

ANSWER:

I found this article enlightening :
Javascript Madness: Query String Parsing

I found it when I was trying to undersand why decodeURIComponent was not decoding ‘+’ correctly. Here is an extract:

String:                         "A + B"
Expected Query String Encoding: "A+%2B+B"
escape("A + B") =               "A%20+%20B"     Wrong!
encodeURI("A + B") =            "A%20+%20B"     Wrong!
encodeURIComponent("A + B") =   "A%20%2B%20B"   Acceptable, but strange

Encoded String:                 "A+%2B+B"
Expected Decoding:              "A + B"
unescape("A+%2B+B") =           "A+++B"       Wrong!
decodeURI("A+%2B+B") =          "A+++B"       Wrong!
decodeURIComponent("A+%2B+B") = "A+++B"       Wrong!